Автор конспекта:
Автор(ы): — Матвеева Ирина Георгиевна, Мартыненко Катя, Ершова Влада

Место работы, должность: —

МОУ "Гимназия №1", учитель английского языка

Регион: — Саратовская область

Характеристика конспекта:
Уровни образования: — среднее (полное) общее образование

Класс(ы): — 10 класс
Класс(ы): — 11 класс

Предмет(ы): — Английский язык

Целевая аудитория: — Учащийся (студент)
Целевая аудитория: — Учитель (преподаватель)

Тип ресурса: — дидактический материал

Краткое описание ресурса: —

Реферат Образование в России и Британии — выступление на городской научно-практической конференции старшеклассников 2009 год


1. Introduction

2. Chapter 1. British Schools.

3. Chapter 2. Britain's Universities.

4. Chapter 3. The System of Education in Great Britain. Types of Schools.

5. Chapter 4. Great Britain. Higher Education.

6. Chapter 5. Education in Russia.

7. Chapter 6. Educational System in Russia.

8. Chapter 7. The School Year in Great Britain.

9. Chapter 8. The School Year in Russia.

10. Chapter 9. Examinations in Great Britain.

11. Chapter 10. Examinations in Russia.

12. Chapter 11. The Similarities and Differences of Two Systems of Education.

13. Conclusion.

14. The List of Literature Used.

15. Supplementary Material. Tables.

We are actually school-leavers. Next year we are going to finish our school and to enter the university. We have spent the greater part of our life at school. To tell you the truth, we can say that school has become the inseparable part of our life. It is practically our “second home”. Most of our memories are closely connected with our school. School helps to turn a little child into an educated, clever person. The education is very important for the development of a person. With the help of education one gets knowledge about the surrounding world, is prepared for the life. The education influences such important decisions like the choice of career.

In our report we want to describe the systems of education in Russia and Great Britain. We would like to compare these systems, to find out what system has more good points, what system is better for the development of the children’s abilities, what system can help the children to get more knowledge necessary for his or her life.

It is a well-known fact that Russian education has always been considered as the best all over the world. But nowadays there is such a tendency in a modern society to send Russian children to study abroad. And the most popular countries are European countries, especially Great Britain. And the question arises “Why does it so happen?” Why is the education in Europe considered better than the education in Russia? What changes in the system of Russian education that have taken place recently created a negative image of our state education? That’s why we have decided to devote our report to the comparison of these two systems.

Consequently the aims and purposes of our work are:

● to compare the systems of education in Russia and in GB,

● to reveal differences and similarities of the systems,

● to find out advantages and disadvantages,

● to systematize the results of our work.

Chapter 1. British Schools.

All British children must stayat school from the age of 5 until they are 16. Many of them stay longer andtake final examinations when they are 17 or 18. Before 1965 all childrenof state schools hadto go through special intelligence tests. There were different types of statesecondary schools and at the age of 11 children went to different schoolsin accordance with the results of the tests. State schools are divided into the following types:

Grammar schools.Children who go to grammar schools are usually those whoshow a preference for academic subjects, although many grammar schools now also have sometechnical courses.

Technical schools.Some children go to technical schools. Most courses there are either commercial or technical.

Modern schools.Boys and girls who are interested in working with their hands and learningin a practical way can go to a technical school and learn some trade.

Comprehensive schools.These schools usually combine all types of secondary education. They have physics, chemistry, biology laboratories, machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography, history and art departments, commercial anddomestic courses.

Private schools.There are also many schools which the State does not control. They areprivate schools. Theycharge fees for educating children, and many of them areboarding schools, at which pupils live during the term.

After leaving school many young people go to colleges of further education. Those who become students atColleges of Technology come from different schools at different ages between 15 and 17. Thelectures at such colleges, each an hour long, start at 9.15 in the morning and end at 4.45 in the afternoon.

Chapter 2. Britain's Universities.

There are about 90 universities in Britain. They are divided into three types: the old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities), the 19th century universities such as London and Manchester universities, and the new universities. Some years ago there were alsopolytechnics. Aftergraduating from a polytechnic a student gota degree, but it was not a university degree. 31 former polytechnicswere given university status in 1992.

Fullcourses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Arts or Science. Mostdegree courses at universitieslast 3 years, language courses 4 years (including a yearspent abroad). Medicine and dentistry courses are longer (5-7 years).

Students mayreceive grants from their LocalEducation Authority to help pay for books,accommodation, transport and food.These grants depend on the income of their parents.

Most students liveaway from home, in flatsor halls of residence.

Students don't usually have a job during the term becausethe lessons, called lectures, seminars, classesor tutorials (small groups),are full time. However, many students now have to work in the evenings.

University life is considered «an experience». The exams arecompetitive but the social life and living away from home are also important. The social life is excellent with a lot of clubs, parties, concerts, bars.

There are not only universities in Britain but alsocolleges. Colleges offer courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some professionsconnected with medicine.

Chapter 3. The System of Education in Great Britain. Types of Schools.

The educational system of Great Britain has developed for over a hundred years. It is a complicated system with wide variations between one part of the country and another. Three partners are responsible for the education service: central government – the Department of Education and Science is concerned with the formation of national policies for education. It is responsible for the maintenance of minimum national standard of education. In exercising its functions the DES is assisted by Her Majesty’s Inspectorate. The primary functions of the Inspectors are to give professional advice to the Department, local education authorities, schools and colleges, and discuss day-to-day problems with them.

Local education authorities are charged with the provision and day-to-day running of the schools and colleges in their areas and the recruitment and payment of the teachers who work in them. They are responsible for the provision of buildings, materials and equipment. However, the choice of textbooks and timetable are usually left to the headmaster. The contents and method of teaching is made by the individual teacher the Department of Education and Science (DES), local education authorities (LEAs), and schools themselves.

NURSERY EDUCATION.Education for the under-fives, mainly from 3 to 5, is not compulsory and can be provided in nursery schoolsandnursery classes attached to primary schools. Although they are called schools, they give little education. The children spend most of their time in some sort of play activity, as far as possible of an educational kind. In any case, there are not enough of schools to take all children of that age group. A large proportion of children at this beginning stage are in the private sector where fees are charged. Many children attend pre-school playgroups, mostly organized by parents, where children can go in the morning or afternoon for a couple of times a week.

PRIMARY EDUCATION.The primary school usually takes children from 5 to 11. Over half of the primary schools take the complete age group from 5 to 11. The remaining schools take the pupils aged 5 to 7 – infant schools, and 8 to 11 – junior schools. However, some LEAs have introduced first school, taking children aged 5 to 8, 9 to 10. The first school is followed by the middle schoolwhich takes children from 8 to 14. It follows by the upper school (the third level) which takes middle school-leavers until the age of 18. This three-stage system (first, middle and upper) is becoming more and more popular in a growing number of areas. The usual age for transfer from primary to secondary school is 11.

SECONDARY EDUCATION.Secondary education is compulsory up to the age of 16, and pupils may stay on at school voluntarily until they are 18. Secondary schools are much larger than primary schools and most children (over 80 per cent) go to comprehensive schools.

There are three categories of comprehensive schools:

  • schools which take pupils from 11 to 18,
  • schools which take middle school-leavers from 12, 13 or 14 to 18, and
  • schools which take the age group from 11 to 16.
  • The pupils in the latter group, wishing to continue their education beyond the age of 16 (to be able to enter university) may transfer to the sixth form of an 11-18 school, to a sixth-formcollege or to a tertiary college which provide complete courses of secondary education. The tertiary college offers also part-time vocational courses.

    Comprehensive schools admit children of all abilities and provide a wide range of secondary education for all or most of the children in a district.

    In some areas children moving from state primary to secondary education are still selected for certain types of schools according to their current level of academic attainment. There are grammar andsecondary modern schools, to which children are allowed at the age of 11 on the basis of their abilities. Grammar schools provide a mainly academic education for the 11 to 18 age group. Secondary modern schools offer a more general education with a practical bias up to the minimum school-leaving age of 16.

    Some local educational authorities runtechnical schools (11 – 18). They provide a general academic education, but place particular emphasis on technical subjects. However, as a result of comprehensive reorganization the number of grammar and secondary modern schools fell radically by the beginning of the 1990s.

    There are special schoolsadapted for the physically and mentally handicapped children. The compulsory period of schooling here is from 5 to 16. A number of handicapped pupils begin their education being young and stay on longer. Special schools and their classes are more generally staffed than ordinary schools and provide, where possible physiotherapy, speech therapy and other forms of treatment. Special schools are normally maintained by state, but a large proportion of special boarding schools are private and fee-charging.

    About 5 per cent of Britain’s children attend independentor private schools outside the Free State sector. Some parents choose to pay for private education in spite of the existence of Free State education. These schools charge between 300 pounds a term for day nursery pupils and 3,500 pounds a term for senior boarding-school pupils.

    Chapter 4. Great Britain. Higher Education.

    There is a considerable choice of post-school education in Britain. In addition to universities, there are also polytechnics and a series of different types of assisted colleges, such as colleges of technology, art, etc, which tend to provide more work-orientated courses than universities. Some of these courses are part-time, with the students being released by their employers for one day a week or longer periods.

    Actually all students on full-time courses receive grants or loans from the government which cover their tuition fees and everyday expenses (accommodation, food, books, etc).

    Universities in Britain enjoy complete academic freedom, choosing their own staff and deciding which students to admit, what and how to teach, and which degrees to award (first degrees are called Bachelor degrees). They are mainly government-funded, except for the totally-independent University of Buckingham.

    There is no automatic admission to university, as there are only a limited number of places (around 100000) available each year. Candidates are accepted on the basis of their A-level results. Actually all degree courses are full-time and last three years (medical and veterinary courses last five or six years).

    Students who obtain their Bachelor degree (graduates) can apply to take a further degree course, usually involving a mixture of exam courses and research. There are two different types of post-graduate courses — the Master’s degree (MA or MSc), which takes one or two years, and the higher degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which takes two or three years.

    Chapter 5. Education in Russia.

    The education in Russia begins at the age of 3-4, at this age children can go to a kindergarten. In the kindergarten the child deals with music and drawing, starts to count and read, it is also develops physically. The kindergartens are mostly supported by the state, however, the parents also pay for the attending of the kindergarten, and the price is not very high. A kindergarten is not compulsory. Many parents prefer to educate their child up to school at home.

    The school begins at the age of 7. There are usual state schools in Russia, in addition, state and private lyceums and gymnasiums. It is a serious problem for the parents to decide, which school their child should attend. The quality of the education in state schools is not always so good, as in gymnasiums. But gymnasiums are much more expensive. Different additional subjects are also taught in gymnasiums, and that may be difficult for children. However, state schools, lyceums and gymnasiums are subordinated generally to the unified educational system of Russia.

    During three or four years a child goes to the primary school where he studies only easy subjects, like mathematics and reading, for example. Then the secondary school begins, the list of the subjects is enlarged. Every school has its main teaching program, the Russian language; Literature, Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Physical Training belong to it.

    The primary school and the secondary school last up to 11 years, but after 9 years of studying children can go to a college (or vocational school). If a pupil wants to go to the university, he must study at school for two years more.

    After leaving the secondary school, the lyceums, the gymnasium, or the vocational school one can get the higher education. All applicants must pass entrance examinations. Today these entrance examinations are often connected with final examinations. That is if one has passed the final examinations well, the entrance examinations won't be necessary. Moreover, one can pay for the higher education and also pass no entrance examinations.

    At the university specialists are trained. Students study at the university during four years, and then they get the Bachelor degree. Then one can study for two years more to get the Master's degree. The Master's degree is considered to be an advantage for potential employers.

    Chapter 6. Educational System in Russia.

    Russians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to education is stated in the constitution of the Russia Federation. It’s ensured by compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education establishments. It is also ensured by the development of evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.

    Education in Russia is compulsory up to the 9th form including. The stages of compulsory schooling in Russia are:

    ● primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-10 including;

    ● secondary school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive,

    ● secondary school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 including.

    If a pupil of secondary school wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay at school for two years more. Primary and secondary school together comprise 11 years of studying. Every school has a «core curriculum» of academic subjects, such as Russian, Maths, Literature, Biology, Chemistry, Geography and Physics.

    After graduating from the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offers programs of academic subjects and a program of training in a technical field, or a profession.

    After graduating the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium one can go to get a higher education. All applicants must take competitive exam. Higher education institution, which are institutes or universities, offer a 5-years program of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of fields, as well as a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives a candidates degree or a doctor degree.

    Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. An institute or a university has a number of faculties, each specializing in some field of science, which provide candidate and doctor degrees.

    The system of higher and secondary education in Russia is going through a transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to decentralize the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give more academic freedom to faculties and students. All secondary schools, institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now there is quite a number of private fee-paying primary and secondary schools, some universities have fee-paying departments.

    Chapter 7. The School Year in Great Britain.

    The academic year in Great Britain lasts from September till July. And it is divided into three trimesters.

    Autumntrimester. It is from the beginning of September till the middle of July. It is also known as Michaelmas Term. (in private schools)

    Spring trimester. It is from the beginning of January till the middle or the end of March. (It depends on Easter Holiday.) Spring trimester is also called Lent Term. (in private schools)

    Summer trimester. It lasts from the beginning or the middle of April till the middle of July.

    Moreover, in the middle of each trimester a short break, called “half term”, is usually planned. It starts consequently at the end of October, in the middle of February and at the end of May.

    Chapter 8. The School Year in Russia.

    The academic year in Russia lasts from the beginning of September till the end of May. It is divided into four terms. At the end of each term the schoolchildren have their holidays.

    The first term. It begins on the 1st of September and lasts till the end of October.

    The second term. It usually starts at the beginning of November and lasts till the end of December.

    Thethirdterm. Itisthelongestterminaschoolyear. It begins in the middle of January and lasts till the end of March. For the first-year pupils there are some additional holidays in the middle of February.

    The forth term. It begins on the 1st of April and last till the end of a school year, till the end of May.

    Chapter 9. Examinations in Great Britain.

    At the age of 14 or 15 in the third or fourth form of secondary school, pupils begin to choose their exam subjects and prepare for their exams. At the end of the sixth form they take the first public exam for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). Some people leave school at the age of 16 and go to a Further Education College where they choose more practical courses (engineering, typing, and hairdressing).

    Those who stay on into the sixth form prepare for "A" Level exams (Advanced). Good results in two-five subjects are necessary to get a place at one of the British universities.

    All applications to universities and colleges of Great Britain are given through UCAS (Universities and Colleges Admission Service). This organization is a central establishment acting as a mediator between applicants and British universities and colleges of higher education. One who wants to study in higher educational institutions since next October can apply to UCAS in the period between the beginning of September and the middle of December. Applications are taken till the 30th of June. But the number of free places in the higher institutions is strictly shortened and the choice of establishments is limited.

    Chapter 10. Examinations in Russia.

    The procedure of passing the examinations by the nine-year pupils and the school-leavers has recently been changed.

    As far as the nine-year pupils are concerned, they have to take two compulsory exams and two exams according to their choice. The choice of the exams depends on the profile they would like to follow in the 10th and 11th forms: Mathematics, Humanitarian, Social Science, etc.

    The school-leavers have to pass Unified State Examinations. USEs are held on the following subjects: Russian, Literature, Mathematics, Foreign Languages, Chemistry, Biology, Social Science, Geography, History and so on. Russian and Mathematics are compulsory. Each school-leaver can choose from one to nine more examinations to take. It depends on his or her choice of higher educational institution. If a school-leaver wants to try his or her fortune at a few higher educational establishments he or she will choose more exams to take.

    The system of USE is the system of joining the final examinations at school and the entrance examinations at higher educational establishment. The results of the USE are taken at all higher educational establishment of the country.

    Chapter 11. The Similarities and Differences of Two Systems of Education.

    After studying the systems of education in Great Britain and Russia we have come to the conclusion that there are some common features:

    ● both systems have the same stages of education: primary, secondary and higher,

    ● there is a wide choice of the establishments,

    ● at the age of 16 the pupils can choose to continue studying at school or to enter a college of secondary education,

    ● to transfer from the secondary stage to the higher stage one must pass the state examination.

    But these two systems also have some differences, such as:

    ● children in Great Britain start learning at the age of about 3 years old, while in Russia – at the age of about 6,5,

    ● the number of private schools in Russia is not so large as in Great Britain,

    ● the school year in Great Britain and in Russia is organized in different way. In Great Britain the academic year is divided into three parts, while in Russia – into four parts.


    We have described the systems of education in Russia and Great Britain. We have found out the main advantages and disadvantages of these systems of education. And now we want to tell you what they are. Let’s begin first of all with the advantages:

    ● there is a wide variety of schools and higher establishments, introduced in the system of education in Great Britain: Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities and etc. And this variety gives the children of all abilities an opportunity to get secondary education.

    ● in spite of the fact that the school day lasts longer than in Russia, children in Great Britain practically don’t have home task, that’s why it is easier and less tiresome to study.

    ● a diploma, received in Great Britain gives a person an opportunity to find the job in any country of the world easier than with Russian diploma.

    The Russian system of education has its own advantages too:

    ● the Russian system of education gives a pupil deep knowledge of all subjects.

    ● to get a secondary education in Russia you have to study less than in Great Britain.

    ● the school year in Russia is better organized than in Great Britain. It is more convenient to have 4 holidays a year. We have longer summer holidays.

    Now let’s say a few words about the disadvantages.

    ● the main disadvantage of education in Great Britain is the fact that little children are deprived of the childhood. Too much time is devoted to primary education. Children must have childhood. They must play, not study.

    ●also the main disadvantage is a wide variety of subjects that a child should learn. We think that some subjects won’t be helpful.

    In conclusion we must say that neither Russian nor British system of education is ideal. If we take the advantages of both systems we will get the ideal model of system of education.

    The List of Literature Used.

    1. Websites:

    • «www.edu.ru» Education in Russia (Federal Portal)
    • «www.estudy.ru» Everything about tuition and education abroad

    2. Electronic directories:

    • Higher Educational establishments in Russia 2005/2006.

    3. Books:

    • «95 Oral Topics in English» Е.L. Zanina (Irice Rolph, Мoscow, 1997)
    • «English Topics (11 th form)» N.V. Kravchenko ( Exmo, Moscow, 2006)
    • «English. Optional Course» B.S. Оstrovsky (Мoscow, «Prosveschenie», 1992)
    • «10 Consultations in English» V.А. Мilovidov (Irice – Press, Мoscow, 1997)

    Supplementary Material. Tables.

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